Thanks @ssingla and @Umair Khan for your answers.
Finally, I found a solution consisting of deriving the `FileInputFormat` class and overriding the `getSplits` method in order to get only the splits corresponding to the wanted part of the HDFS file.
In this method, I call the super class to get the splits generated by the `InputFileFormat` class. Thanks to the configuration of the job, I manage to get some information like the beginning of the HDFS file and the end of the HDFS file I wanted to read. Finally, the beginning and the end of all splits get from the `getSPlits` method of the super class are compared to the previous information and returned if they match the the wanted part of the HDFS file.