Is there a way to limit access to WebHDFS to only users coming from certain hosts? Something similar to hadoop.proxyuser
You achieve this by limiting access via firewall rules, other than that KNOX + Kerberos is the built in method.
Secure Authentication: The core Hadoop uses Kerberos and Hadoop delegation tokens for security. WebHDFS also uses Kerberos (SPNEGO) and Hadoop delegation tokens for authentication.
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You can take a look at the HDFS proxyuser hosts setting as, means the user with name as <USERNAME> will be able to access the test1.example.com,test2.example.com,test3.example.com hosts only.